Pathological Basis of Diseases in Ayurveda

Sapta Dhatu (Seven Vital Elements)

Ayurvedic principles to perceive the Pathological Basis of disease conditions involved DHATUS, which are divided into seven parts. These seven dhatus are again divided according to the dominance of the tridosha status. The Sapta Dhatus [Seven vital elements] are considered to be:

  • Ras
  • Rakta
  • Maans
  • Med
  • Asthi
  • Majja
  • Shukra

Short description of these elements is:

1- Ras Dhatu: As per modern understanding ras dhatu is derived from the digested food and it nourishes each and every tissue and cell of the body.It is analogous to the plasma.

If ras dhatu is in imbalance stage in a person then symptoms observed are ; loss of appetite, unable to feel the real taste of the food, insufficient saliva, nausea, drowsiness,weakness, bodyache, fever, jaundice like syndromes, assimilative disorders, sexual weakness, impotency like symptoms,white hairs, skin shrinkage, old look in young age.

2- Rakta Dhatu:

As per modern understanding rakta dhatu regarded as the basis of life, analogous to the circulating blood cells. It not only nourishes the body tissues, but provides physical strength and color to the body. Hemoglobin percent, TLC, DLC, ESR, infections, blood sepsis, and problems related to blood serum is covered by this Dhatu. If raktadhatu is in imbalance condition in a person then following diseases may arise:

skin diseases, allergic reactions, spleenomegaly, stomatitis, boils, dandruff,  inflammation of rectum, anus, glans penis, bloody leucorrheal discharge, leucoderma, leprosy, black patches and spots, scabies, ichthyosis, psoriasis and all anomalies of blood, etc.

3- Maans Dhatu:

As per modern understanding maans dhatu is the muscular tissue. It provides physical strength and support for the meda dhatu.If the maans dhatu is in imbalance condition in a person then following diseases may arise: tumours, cysts, ulcers, warty growth, corn, warts, lymphadenopathy, tonsillitis, hard and extra fleshy growth, hardness of muscles, fibrositis, myositis, tendinitis, rigidity, shortness of muscles, tendons and ligaments. Anomlies of Flesh and muscular system etc.

4- Meda Dhatu :

As per modern understanding meda dhatu is the adipose tissue. It provides support to asthi dhatu and also lubricates the body. The abnormalities of meda dhatu leads to  obesity, accumulation of fat, early syndromes of polyuria, glycosuria, undesirable growth of glands, hyperglyceamia, excessive sweating, etc.

5- Asthi Dhatu :

As per modern understanding asthi dhatu comprising of bone tissue, including cartilages. Its main function is to give support to the majja dhatu and provide support to maans dhatu also.The abnormalities of this dhatu lead to extra bony growth, tooth problems,bone related problems, osteoporosis,formation of renal calculus, gall bladder calculus, problems related to skeletal system etc.

6- Majja Dhatu :

As per modern understanding majja dhatu is the yellow and red bone marrow tissue, its main function is to fill up the bones and to oleate the body.The abnormality of this dhatu leads to pain in joints, fear, unconsciousness, collapse, seeing dark in day light, problems of bone marrow and reticulo-endothelial system, extra hard root like formation in joints, etc.

7- Shukra Dhatu:

As per modern understanding shukra dhatu is related with male and female reproductive systems. It deals with problems related to male and female reproductive systems, genito urinary male and female disorders etc.

Tridosha effect on the Sapta Dhatus

Sapta Dhatus are affected by the Tridosha.

When Rakta dhatu is affected by the ‘Pitta dosha’, the condition is known as ‘Rakta-Pitta’ and the syndromes are equal to haematomasis, hemophilia, purpura conditions.

When Rakta dhatu is affected by the Vata dosha, the condition is known as Rakta-Vata, the syndromes are equal to gout and uric acid diathesis.

When Kaphha affects the Rakta dhatu, the condition is bloody dysentery, bloody mucous colitis etc.

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